National Guitars History National Guitars
The National Steel Guitar Part One: An Introduction

By Al Handa
Each era of music has its share of definitive guitars. In the 70's, for example, the Les Paul electric became THE heavy metal and hard rock guitar. In the 60's, Jim Hendrix made the Fender Stratocaster the definitive rock instrument. Both of those had one advantage that the 20's bluesmen didn't have. That was electrical amplification of sound.

Back then, however, Blues guitarists had the next best thing; the National Resonator type guitar, which was three to five times as loud as any made of wood, and impervious to the often instrument-unfriendly environments of the tent shows and juke joints. This was because the guitar was made of metal, which is what makes it instantly recognizable to even the newest Blues fan.

Back then, in the tent shows and hot, sweaty juke joints, the blues artists had to make themselves heard over the normal noise of an often severely chemically impaired crowd (some things never change). It was worse for women singers, who often fronted large jazz bands.

Legends like Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith were not just talented vocalists. They were LOUD talented vocalists whose vocal chords could cut through a ten piece band and be heard in the back rows of a tent (which was probably the worst acoustic environment for sound).

It was a bit better for those who played in juke joints, which were often simply convenient rooms to sell bootleg liquor. Most who entertained in such places were solo artists, accompanied by guitar, and maybe a second person playing harp (unless you had a jug or string band).

There were also street musicians who played on corners, but that's been overemphasized in the quest to present a more sanitized version of the early Blues. Back then, you played on street corners for fun, some pocket change, and if you didn't have a paying gig or recording contract.

The acoustics in a juke were better, but the proximity to the crowd (this is pre-bouncers in T-shirts era stuff) made the preservation of one's instrument a real concern. Also, most guitars couldn't stop a stray bullet either, which was one occupational hazard of the era. Luckily, most guitars back then were catalog types like the Stella, which were as sturdy as wood could get back then.

In any case, you had to be one LOUD sucker. Which in 1928 had an added benefit; which was that due to the recording technology of the era, only those who could project their music could make that steel needle shake and jive enough to produce a decent 78 rpm master disc.

In 1928, Tampa Red became the first Black Blues artist to record with a National steel resonator-type guitar, which eventually became one of the classic blues instruments. Shortly afterwards, a parade of National players followed on 78, all of whom are among the early Blues elite.

That group included Tampa Red, Son House, Bukka White, Bo Carter, Blind Boy Fuller, Walter Vincent (who was with the Chatmon Brothers), Peetie Wheatstraw, Scrapper Blackwell, Bumble Bee Slim, and Black Ace.

Oddly enough, Tampa Red didn't play the type of music most Blues fans associate with the National Steel bodied guitar. His music was smooth and sophisticated, using playing techniques (such as string damping) which were quite advanced for the era. Lyrically, he often did novelty numbers that contained double-entrendres, which can make his music seem slight at times to the modern listener. However, a fairer statement would be that the blues songs of today are often lyrically narrow, and artists avoid the risqué sense of humor that a generation of young Black males and females enjoyed back then.

In other words, you're not going to hear many Blues artists singing about putting their juicy wieners into hot buns these days. Which is sad in a way?

In contrast to the smooth styling’s of a Tampa Red were the harder Delta sounds of Son House and Bukka White. Both were artists who didn't do well commercially in the 20's, but created music that 60's folk and rock audiences related to. Powerful rhythm’s and vocals, with intense slide work adding a second voice. In the case of Bukka, a definite precursor to the later Bo Diddley Beat.

The interesting thing is that all of the above played the same type of guitar, but with some important differences. The model Tampa used was called a "Tricone" and Son's was called a "single resonator" type. Each had a distinctive characteristic (aside from being incredibly loud) that suited each particular player.


Which of course, leads us to the question, just what is a National Steel guitar?

We've all seen the metal body which is the hallmark of the type. However, it's what's under all that metal that makes it different than any wood guitar.

To understand what a National is all about, you have to understand that the purpose of the Tricone and single resonator is to amplify sound. The basic principle is fairly simple and best explained by Bob Brozman in his classic book, "The History & Artistry of National Resonator Instruments" (which was written by Bob with Dr. John Dopyera, Jr., Richard R. Smith, and Gary Atkinson).

Bob states that "later efforts to amplify stringed instruments were inspired by the technology of Edison and Victrola phonographs. The principle component of these early non-electric phonographs was a pickup head that transmitted sound from the stylus to a small mica disc. The disc acted like a banjo skin or the paper in a kazoo. It amplified the sound."

This sound was transmitted to the listener using a long horn, or megaphone. The first instruments using this principle were violins made in 1910 (or thereabouts). Those used a cone shaped disc made of thin aluminum, with a horn that stuck out of the instrument. Some guitars using this device were also made.

THE TRICONE MODEL IS BORN the 1920's, two Los Angeles men came together, originally to make a new type of guitar using the horn principle, whom would together create the National Resonator guitar as we know it. The amount of responsibility each had in creating it is, as Brozman describes in his book, is disputed by the various parties. However, there's no doubt that both were important to the creation of the first Tricone guitar.

George Beauchamp's first idea was to create a "wild looking" Hawaiian guitar which sat on a stand and had a horn attached to the bottom. John Dopyera built it, as Brozman relates, "against his better judgment--he knew George's idea wouldn't work before it was made." Beauchamp did use this eccentric gizmo of a guitar on the vaudeville circuit, but abandoned it.  It was a perfect stage guitar with unusual looks, but it sounded terrible.

George then suggested to John that he build one based on the same principle as the mica disc on a Victrola. John experimented with various other materials, such as pressed fiber, glass, tin and other metals. He settled on a very thin, conical shaped aluminum resonator design, used in a set of three connected with a T-bar inside an all metal body.

Dopyera used three as it mellowed the sound, as opposed to using one large cone which was louder, but harsher in tone and with less sustain. He applied for a patent on this Tricone guitar in 1927, which was finally granted in 1930.

Beauchamp found some investors, and in a short time, the National String Instrument Company was formed. Factory production of this remarkable new guitar began in 1927, and by the next year, the company was producing hundreds a week.


It was then when the first problems between the two founders emerged. Dopyera had rejected the single resonator idea earlier, but in Beauchamp's mind, it was the perfect design for a lower cost instrument. The Tricone was more expensive, and mainly bought by professionals, and that market couldn't last forever.

In fact, during the Great Depression, it was the single cone type (which was patented by George in 1929) that as the author Brozman puts it, "not only became a good seller, saving the company from the Great Depression, but a sizable part of the National legacy."

Single Cone ConstructionOne could also add that while the National was originally intended for Hawaiian and Jazz work, the adoption of the instrument by blues artists also contributed to the company's survival. This wasn't Dopyera's intent, as he probably didn't even know what the Blues were.

However, as Marie Gaines quotes Don Young of National Reso-Phonic, "It was the creativity and ingenuity of those early musicians that caused the National guitar to find its niche in the blues, and that is why we are in business today. Blues is now considered a classical American music style and the National guitar is the classical guitar of that genre."

However, Beauchamp's patent was the cause of the schism between the two. Dopyera left National afterwards, which cost him his original patents, and his partner continued to run the company.

Dopyera doesn't disappear from history though. He then formed the Dobro Manufacturing Company, which created a single cone resonator guitar with a new design (and a guitar that still bears the name). Later, after some rather complicated moves, National merged with Dobro, and we will cover that in a later installment of this series.

Simply put, all these events resulted in two major designs, the Tricone and the Single Resonator. As stated earlier, the Tricone has a smoother sound that sustains (the notes last longer), and the latter a sharper, and clearer sound. Which is better is really a moot point, as one could say it is like choosing between Tampa Red and Son House.

End of Part One

The National Steel Guitar Part Two

By Al Handa

More about the various types, and the blues artists who played Nationals

There were now two types of National Steel Guitars, not including the version now manufactured by Dobro. Those were the Tricone and Single-Cone models. As said earlier, the Tricone has a smoother tone, with richer sustain. The single cone was louder, with a tone that had a lot of "attack."

That's an oversimplification when one realizes that two guitars of the same make and model can sound different. Each of the two categories has subcategories, so it can be confusing. There's no substitute for hearing each type being played, but I'll do my best to describe the various models that emerged, and the general sound characteristics of each.

Even Bob Brozman, someone who made the most exhaustive study of this guitar found it a daunting task to identify every model made from 1927 to 1941. Bob said, "At a peak production of nearly 50 instruments a day, literally thousands must have been made. Certain models are found fairly often, while others are quite rare or even unknown."

Bob Brozman considered five main categories in identifying year and model.

Those were:
1. Resonator: Three-cone or single-cone.
2. Body: German silver, brass, steel, or wood.
3. Guitar Bodies: Neck joins at the 12-fret or 14-fret.
4. Guitar Necks: Hawaiian (square) or Spanish (round).
5. Headstocks: Slotted 91927-1935) or solid (1936-41).

Also, Bob broke those down into time categories, which correspond to the major historical periods of the company:
1. Prototypes, false starts, and earliest produced.
2. Models of the John Dopyera era 1928-1929.
3. Models of the Depression years 1929-1935.
4. Models of the Chicago era 1935-1941.

To keep things simple, I'm not going to discuss the custom models and other stringed instruments at this point. There was one common denominator to all of the above: The Company used one series of "Style Numbers" to indicate the materials used, and the ornamentation. All of the styles were nickel-plated with some exceptions, most used ivory celluloid fingerboard binding. The style numbers ran from 1-4, 35, and 97. There were others, like an "N" or "O" style also.
There are two exceptions I have to note, the Duolian and Triolian models, which had wood bodies. It's important to note that, as these are the ones often confused with "Dobro" type guitars, which also had wood bodies.

Price is always important

Now, the price of these models is important to note. While the Nationals weren't made with the Blues market in mind, these guitars certainly began showing up in the hands of artists like Tampa Red early on.

Nowadays, a National is a premium priced item, so it can lead one to believe that the guitars were always expensive. That isn't really the case. Also, the model prices didn't change all that much, and in some cases, stayed the same throughout the history of the company.
The 1930's era price list

In Bob Brozman's book, he notes that the price of the various models weren't that out of line with other makes. Here are two 1930's era price lists:

National:                                           Martin Guitars:                               
Duolian: $32.00-35.00                        D-18: $55.00
Triolian: $45.00-47.50                        D-28: $100.00
Style O: $62.00-65.00                        D-45: $200.00
Style 1: $125.00
Style 2: $145.00
Style 3: $165.00
Style 4: $195.00

As one can see, a Style O didn't cost much more than a Martin D-18. Also, the "O" was a single resonator type, and the most inexpensive metal body model. It was the single cone models that saved the company from the effects of the Great Depression. The Tricone’s were the instruments of choice for professionals and advanced students. However, the high end market eventually became saturated, and it was the Style O and others like it that became the big sellers.

At this point, all you have are a bunch of model names, which I'll be the first to admit, means nothing. However, one can deduce certain things from what we've seen so far. The most obvious is that your average Blues artist probably played (for the most part) a Style O or cheaper model. In the case of Tampa Red, he was a successful musician for his time, and could afford a Tricone. Others probably got a Duolian or Triolian. The price of a Duolian probably made it worthwhile to save a bit and get one, as opposed to buying a cheaper all wood Stella.

Playing the National

When you pick up a National and begin playing, one can see reasons to prefer it. The bodies were smaller (since box size wasn't necessary to create volume) and that made it easy to hold and play. This wasn't a small consideration for a Blues musician who may have had to play all day or night.
Also, it had that same quality a good electric guitar has, which is that even the simplest rhythm work has a supercharged quality to it because of the way the volume and tone are delivered. No wood guitar can be as explosive, or sustain sweet slide passages as well. In other words, the perfect guitar for a street corner or noisy juke joint. It’s a guitar that sounds like it has a rhythm section built in.

The best way to begin delving into this guitar is to list several famous Blues artists who used Nationals, and examine what type they had, and the sound they achieved. Most of the artists are familiar. So, for example, when I discuss Bukka White, it'll be fairly easy to find recordings to add real sound examples to my descriptions. For those of you who may not know a particular artist, this can lead to a new discovery.

Blues Artists and their Nationals: Red: Very early Style 4 Spanish Tricone guitar
Son House: Single resonator, either a Triolian, Duolian, or Style O
Bukka White: Square neck "exploding palm tree" Tricone
Bo Carter: Style N
Blind Boy Fuller: 12 and 14 fret Duolian
Peetie Wheatstraw: Style 3 Tricone
Scrapper Blackwell: 12 fret Sunburst Triolian
Bumble Bee Slim: Style O
Black Ace: Square neck Style 2 Tricone
Babe Stovall: 12 fret Duolian
Reverend Gary Davis: single cone (during his 30's recordings)
Oscar "Buddy" Woods: Tri-plate
Blind Arvella Grey: 14 fret Duolian, there are modern Blues artists who use Nationals, and I'll cover them in the future. For the next few installments of this series, we'll examine the players listed. The intent won't be to provide a definitive bio of each, but to see how the guitar helped them shape their individual sound and approach. In doing so, in small steps, you'll understand how the various types of Nationals differed.

I can tell you that a Style O has a harsher, more aggressive tone than the Tricone. However, it may simply be easier to see how Tampa Red differed from Son House. How they approached their instruments was shaped by the type they used, although Bukka White and his energetic style would seem to be an exception (being as he used a Tricone). However, the qualities that made up the Tricone did in fact work consistently for both Tampa Red and Bukka. That's something that will become clearer in the next part.

The National Steel Guitar Part Three

By Al Handa

In the last part, I listed Blues artists who played Nationals. Starting with this installment, two or three will be profiled at a time. Most of the ones I'll be discussing will be well known, so as each is discussed, you can re-listen to old recordings or track down CD's by each to get a sonic impression.
In some cases, like Son House, his music should be familiar, so my discussion won't come off as abstract as a technical discourse on Tricone and single cone sound characteristics might. Perhaps these profiles will be the entrance door to a new discovery on your part.

Tampa Red

Tampa Red wasn't the first artist to record with a National, but he was the first Black artist to do so. Of all the bottleneck artists, he was probably the most popular. His sound was atypical of the Southern style, which as a rule was modal in structure and played in minor keys.

Red's style was more in line with the Hokum or Jug Band genre, with lots of ragtime influences and saucy lyrics. His technique was more musical, and stressed single string playing. The right thumb was used to imply the rhythm, as opposed to the Delta Players who used steady beats. It was a subtle style, and technically advanced for the era.

The guitar used was a gold plated Tricone, and he was known as "The Man With The Gold Guitar." As Bob Brozman relates in his book, The History and Artistry of National Resonator Instruments, it "was a very early Style 4 Spanish guitar, with the separate fronds of chrysanthemums on the coverplate, rather than the later 'flow-through' design."

It was also a unique one, as only one other gold plated National ever been seen (a square neck Style 4). To this day, Tampa Red's guitar hasn't been found.

Tampa Red began his career in the 1920's, and was the third professional Black studio guitarist to establish a recording career. Only Blind Blake and Lonnie Johnson came before him. His first big break in Chicago was working for Ma Rainey's band. There he met Georgia Tom Dorsey, with whom he recorded a ditty called "Tight Like That."

That song, recorded for Vocalion Records, was a huge hit, and earned the two the then princely sum of $2,400. Dorsey, who was then also a Gospel performer, put off singing for the Lord for a few years. The pair, recording as either the Hokum Boys or Tampa Red's Hokum Jug Band, recorded about 90 sides.

Georgia Tom Dorsey left the secular music field in 1932 to return to gospel music. Tampa Red then organized a quintet, and began recording for the Bluebird label. Eventually, he went electric, but his popularity and influence helped popularize the National type guitar.

Outside of the Blues scene, names like Robert Johnson or Muddy Waters resonate more. However, to the true Blues fan, Eddie "Son" House remains the master who influenced both, and is one of the primary links in the evolution of Mississippi-to-Chicago Blues.

Son House didn't even begin playing guitar until he was 24, but was playing house parties only a few weeks after learning to play. Sometime around 1927 or 28, he was playing in a juke joint when a man went on a shooting spree. Son was wounded in the leg, and shot the man dead. He received a fifteen-year sentence at Parchmen Farm prison.

He was released early, one year later, and met the now legendary Charlie Patton, who introduced him to Willie Brown. The three played together often, and in 1930, traveled to Wisconsin to record sides for Paramount Records.

At this session, he recorded "Dry Spell Blues," "My Black Mama," and the now famous "Preachin Blues." Those performances contained all the aspects of his style. Simple, repeating guitar phrases over a powerful rhythm and on top of it all, a great voice. Although the records never sold well, all are now considered classic.

Son performed and recorded exclusively with a National. It was generally a single-resonator type, a Triolian, Duolian, or Style O. The characteristics of a single-resonator suited his style well, which employed driving rhythms and sharp, powerful slide riffs.

Other than some 78 recordings made for Alan Lomax (then of the Library of Congress) in 1941, he basically faded into obscurity. In fact, by 1943 he was working a variety of non-musical jobs.

In 1964, three young white Blues fans found him in Rochester, and after playing him tapes of his old records, convinced him that there were people who wanted to hear his music. Son re-learned his old pieces, and enjoyed a successful career into the 1970's.
Son's recordings in the 60's weren't considered on a par with the Paramount or Library of Congress material. His skill was such, however, that if you've never heard the early stuff, his later sessions issued on Columbia or Blue Goose will still sound revelatory. My own personal preference is for the later recordings.
His music didn't break new ground, but it did take the best of the early Delta music typified by Charlie Patton, and combined it with powerful and insistent rhythms that were picked up on by the younger players like Muddy Waters or Robert Johnson.

When you listen to those two legends play the slide, Son House is there in spirit.

Tampa Red and Son House were radically different players, and thus are ideal examples of the qualities of the Tricone and Single-resonator types of Nationals. Both used it for the same reason: the volume and punch the resonator gave their guitars. Both have a different sound as each used the best qualities of their instruments.

In the next installment, I'll discuss a Blues legend that used a Tricone, yet on the surface played a style that seemed more related to Son House. Bukka White was one of the artists most associated with the National, yet used a Tricone. It seems like a contradiction, but we'll see that yet again, a master drew out the best of an instrument, and that the Tricone was the ideal guitar for that greatest of storytellers, Bukka White.
The National Steel Guitar Part Four

By Al Handa
Black Ace, Sol Hoopii, and the Hawaiian Slide Style
One of the few Bluesmen to play their National in the Hawaiian style (on the lap, using a slide) was B.K. Turner, better known as Black Ace. He was born in Hughes Springs, Texas in 1907, and was first exposed to music through his local church. This stimulated his interest in music, and he became a self-taught guitarist on a homemade instrument.

Ace worked with Smokey Hogg in the early 30's, and then met Oscar Buddy Woods in Shreveport, Louisiana. Oscar played his National Hawaiian style, and this convinced Turner to adopt that method also. He bought a Style 2 square neck Tricone, and after an abortive attempt to play it in the standard position, switched to playing it on his lap. In addition, he worked out special tunings to complement the type of slide used, in his case, an empty medicine bottle.

Oscar Buddy Woods

Oscar Buddy Woods was the direct line from the great Hawaiian slide guitarists to Black Ace. As Bob Brozman relates in his book, "The History and Artistry of National Resonator Instruments," "It is said that Woods decided to play lap-style after seeing a performance by a traveling Hawaiian show in the early 1920s.

Before continuing with the story of Turner, aka Black Ace, it would be a good idea to understand a little about the Hawaiian style of slide, which would be such an influence on the Blues. For most, the picture that the term "Hawaiian style" conjures up is of Hula Girls, swaying to this mellow, liquid smooth slide music (a staple of 50's films).

This would hardly seem like a major influence on Blues slide, but that is because that Hula Girl image is only a small cinematic image, a tourist industry stereotype. In reality, Hawaiian steel guitar music in the 20's and 30's was a major and very sophisticated genre, which also encompassed Jazz, and Blues.

Early Hawaiian Guitar

To go back into the early history of Hawaiian guitar is like the early Jazz days. Before King Oliver and Louis Armstrong, you had Buddy Bolden, one of the first giants of the genre who lived and died before the era of mass produced records. In the case of Hawaiian music, you have, as Brozman states, "the first generation guitarists like David Kaili, Joseph Kekuku (who is generally recognized as the inventor of Hawaiian guitar), and Pale K. Lua, all who were touring and recording on the mainland by 1912.

Sol Hoopii, The Greatest Hawaiian National Player

However, the best known National player of that genre was Sol Hoopii, who Brozman states "is without a doubt the most important and musically influential Hawaiian guitarists of this century. In addition to affecting all Hawaiian guitarists, Sol also had great influence on Western Swing and Country music. He was a great traditional Hawaiian stylist, but was the first to really blend jazz and blues with the Hawaiian steel sound."

Sol was born Solomon Hoopii Kaai in Honolulu in 1902, and was one of 21 children. He began playing the ukulele at the age of three, and had moved on to guitar by age six. His heroes were Kaili, Kekuku, and Lau, and at the age of 17, decided that their success was connected to their tours on the mainland.

So, he stowed away with two friends on a liner heading for San Francisco, which almost ended in disaster as they were soon discovered. However, they so charmed the passengers with their music that they all chipped in to pay the fares for this new Hawaiian trio. This may not be 100% true, but to paraphrase Rousseau, we aren't interested in facts, but in the truth. The story stands in this account.

Sol moved from San Francisco to Los Angeles in the early 20's, and made his official debut at a local chop sue house. He met Lani McIntire and Glenwood Leslie and formed the Sol Hoopii Novelty Trio which became a famous recording group by the late 20's. Bob Brozman states that "his records of 1926-1938 were issued in many countries worldwide, and his name is still legendary among all Hawaiian steel players all over the world."

Sol's Style and Influence

The main elements of his slide style were incredibly fast single string work, the ability to play Jazz and Blues as well as any artist of the time, and a relaxed, yet powerful sense of melody, all keyed by blazingly fast and powerful right hand picking technique.

One other effect Sol had was to make the National a popular instrument. Sol used a prototype Tricone, and was later given two by John Dopyera, one of which had Sol's name engraved on it. The story has less than a happy ending, as Dopyera later found that Sol had pawned one of the pair.

Sol's effect on the popularity of the National was immense. By 1929, three years after his first recordings with a National, 90 percent of Hawaiian recording artists were using this type of guitar.

Brozman sums up Sol's effect on American music: "Sol stands alone as the acknowledged king of the Hawaiian steel guitar. The other top players of Nationals were Tau Moe, Sam Ku West, Jim and Bob, Sol K. Bright and Benny Nawahi. They came close to having Sol's abilities and they stand above the rest. However the shriving players on the list will certainly grant Sol his title. He alone popularized the National more than these other players put together, and forever changed American popular music.

Brozman adds, "Very few other musicians come to mind that were both influenced by American music AND went on to greatly influence American music."

Back To Black Ace

So, this was the music that influenced Oscar Buddy Woods, who in turn influenced Black Ace. Ace and Woods mainly played in open G and D tunings. Both were fine players, although Ace was the less technical of the two.

The trademarks of Ace's style were carefully thought out lyrics and structures supported by guitar work that was simpler than the Hawaiian style, and closer to bottleneck slide Blues. However, the smooth tone he got with his style 2 Tricone was a sharp contrast to the harsher tone of the Delta.

Black Ace found more opportunities as the Depression began to ease in the mid-1930s, and he began to tour as far as Louisiana and Oklahoma. He settled in Ft. Worth, Texas, and it was there a talent scout for Decca Records signed him to a contract. This resulted in six sides, including the song that gave him his professional name, "I Am The Black Ace."

Vocalion also recorded him, but only issued two sides under a different name, Buck Turner. Ace also did frequent radio performances between 1936 and 1941, and even appeared in the 1937 film, "The Blood of Jesus," as a performer."

World War II interrupted his career in 1943. After his term, he didn't return to music, and he and his wife were picking cotton for a living. In 1950, he was working as a janitor at the Ft. Worth Airport.

In 1960, he was re-discovered by Chris Strachwitz, and he recorded an album for Arhoolie Records. Also in 1962, he appeared in another film, "The Blues." That was the last of his music until he passed away in Ft. Worth in 1972.

Black Ace remains one of the more obscure artists in the Blues, yet his music is still esteemed by fans of slide guitar. In Texas, he is still being re-discovered by new generations of Blues slide fans who seek out artists like Ace, Hop Wilson, and others who played guitar in the Hawaiian style.

This article, and the series that will follow it rely heavily on the classic book, "The History and Artistry of NATIONAL Resonator Instruments" by Bob Brozman. Brozman is also one of the foremost National Steel Guitar players in the world.
Check out Bob Brozman's web site. Also, a series of this depth wouldn't be possible without the cooperation of the National Reso-Phonic Guitar, Inc., who has provided advice and materials in the research phases. The photos used in this piece are courtesy of National Reso-Phonic Guitars, Inc. Special thanks to Don Young, and Marie Gaines of National Reso-Phonic for their help and cooperation in creating this series
Copyright © 1998 by Al Handa. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission from the author.